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This is the list of FAQs from the DiRT mailing list, originally created by Hank Janssen email@example.com), but now now maintained by:
Rod Snaith (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Andi Vogt (email@example.com)
Dave Fritz (my email address)
with contributions from many other people (see the credits section).
The DiRT FAQ is being reworked as I (Dave F) get time; Tom Massoll has volunteered to spearhead a major revision of the FAQ.
The contents of this document are based on the contributors' opinions; neither the contributors nor the FAQ maintainer accept any responsibility or liability for any damages brought about by the information contained herein.
This document may be freely distributed and reproduced as long as it remains wholly unaltered and includes this notice. If you do redistribute this document, especially on a commercial basis, please contact Dave Fritz or Andi Vogt before doing so.
If you have suggestions for improvements to this document, or if you fail to understand any part of it, please feel free to send a note to the FAQ maintainer or to the author of the relevant section. The initials of the author(s) of each section can be found in brackets following each question. This document is intended for those people interested in or driving a Dodge RAM truck. Such as (but not limited to) the 1500, 2500 and 3500 series.
0.1 Who am I.
Dave Fritz my email address is maintaining this FAQ until Tom Massoll gets the files and begins updating the page. In 1993, Dave ordered 94 Dodge 2500 diesel, which has now been heavily modified for extensive off road camping. In Feb 2000, Dave's wife Sue decided that she wanted a diesel truck of her own, and she ordered a 2001 QC/SB 2500 diesel 4X4 with the 6 speed. Dave's enthusiasm for the Ram led to the creation of DodgeRam.org, which currently hosts this page until revisions are complete.
and Table of Contents.
0.1 Who am I.
1.1 What do all of those acronyms mean (4x2, 4x4)?
out about the Dodge Ram truck.
2.1 Phone numbers.
2.2 What is a 1500.
2.2.2 What are the engines available.
2.2.3 What are the dimensions/Performance Data.
2.3 What is a 2500.
2.3.2 What are the engines available.
2.3.3 What are the dimensions/Performance Data.
2.4 What is a 3500.
2.4.2 What are the engines available.
2.4.3 What are the dimensions/Performance Data.
2.5 What mileage have people been getting.
3.1 What kinds of oil are people using.
3.2 What kinds of oil filters are people using.
upgrades and guidelines
4.1 What can I do to make my truck go faster.
4.1.1 Biggest performance bang for the $$
4.2 What are kind of tires will/are the best for my truck.
4.2.1 Tire Pressures.
4.2.2 What are the biggest tires that fit on a 1500.
4.2.3 What are the biggest tires that fit on a 2500.
4.2.4 What are the biggest tires that fit on a 3500.
4.3 What is an Borla Exhaust. (+ installation)
4.5 Gear Ratios.
4.6 Axle Info.
4.7 US Gear Overdrive/Underdrive.
4.8 K&N Airfilters and FIPK.
5.2 Running boards.
5.3 Brush Guards.
5.4 Side Bars.
5.5 Aero Tanks.
5.7 Better brake pads.
Cummins diesel engine
6.1 Oil pressure delay.
6.2 What kinds of oil are people using for the Cummins Diesel.
6.3 Biggest performance bang for the $$ for diesels.
6.4 What is this ISB engine I keep hearing about.
about more 4x4 info.
7.1 What's that lever for?
7.2 Where are my hubs?
7.3 Stock, shmock, I want to lift it!
7.3.1 Available lift kits
7.4 If its four wheel drive, why am I stuck?
7.4.1 Brief description of traction aiding devices
7.4.2 List of factory available LSD's
7.4.3 List of aftermarket LSD's/lockers
7.4.4 Why you can't use an LSD in a front CAD system
7.5 Help, I'm stuck!
7.5.1 Description of factory tow hooks, installation
7.5.2 Aftermarket winch bumpers
7.6 How to tow a 4x4
8 Various helpful sites.
1.1 What do all of those acronyms mean (4x2, 4x4, etc.)?
|This is a list of common abbreviations used in this FAQ. More Ram abbreviations are available from DodgeRam.org > Glossary|
2 Wheel Drive.
4 Wheel Drive.
Fuel Injection Performance Kit.
2nd generation On Board Diagnostics (Federally required computer system to check engine problems that could lead to any increase in emissions)
Interact System B (refers to Cummins B-series diesel with new Interact System computer controls)
company that makes Cummins uprate kits http://www.tstproducts.com/
Technical Service Bulletin (repair issued by manufacturer in response to common problems amongst a similar group of vehicles)
2. Finding out about the Dodge Ram truck.
2.1 Phone Numbers
(the following numbers are only valid in the US) 1-800-992-1997 Chrysler Customer Service 1-800-255-9877 Auto-mobility Headquarters (info about reimbursements for aftermarket adaptation of new vehicles for people with disabilities) 1-800-253-0823 order a catalog of replicas of Chrysler vehicles 1-800-4-A-DODGE get a Dodge catalog or other product info 1-812-342-6741 TST line. HP upgrade kit company for the Cummins. (the following number is valid if you're not in the US) 810-978-6428 Chrysler International
This section describes the various 1500 models available. These are based on the 1997 model year.
The 1500 Series truck come in several (base) options. Dodge Ram 1500 WS 2WD Regular Cab Short bed. Dodge Ram 1500 WS 2WD Regular Cab Long bed. Dodge Ram 1500 LT 2WD Regular Cab Short bed. Dodge Ram 1500 LT 2WD Regular Cab Long bed. Dodge Ram 1500 LT 4WD Regular Cab Short bed. Dodge Ram 1500 LT 4WD Regular Cab Long bed. Dodge Ram 1500 ST 2WD Club Cab Short bed. Dodge Ram 1500 ST 2WD Club Cab Long bed. Dodge Ram 1500 ST 4WD Club Cab Short bed. Dodge Ram 1500 ST 4WD Club Cab Long bed.
2.2.2 What are the engines available.
V6 Only. (3.9L) (V6 is only option) Dodge Ram 1500 WS 2WD Regular Cab Short bed. Dodge Ram 1500 WS 2WD Regular Cab Long bed. V6/V8/V8. (3.9L/5.2L/5.9L) Dodge Ram 1500 LT 2WD Regular Cab Short bed Dodge Ram 1500 LT 2WD Regular Cab Long bed. Dodge Ram 1500 LT 4WD Regular Cab Short bed. Dodge Ram 1500 LT 4WD Regular Cab Long bed. V8/V8. (5.2L/5.9L) Dodge Ram 1500 ST 2WD Club Cab Short bed. Dodge Ram 1500 ST 2WD Club Cab Long bed. Dodge Ram 1500 ST 4WD Club Cab Short bed. Dodge Ram 1500 ST 4WD Club Cab Long bed.
2.2.3 What are the dimensions/Performance Data.
For an up to date list of dimensions/performance data for stock 1500 please check http://www.edmunds.com/edweb/trucks/Dodge.Trucks.html The list is so long, it would take up way to much space.!2.3 What is a 2500.
This section describes the various 2500 models available. These are based on the 1997 model year.
The 2500 Series truck come in several (base) options. Dodge Ram 2500 2WD Heavy Duty Regular Cab. Dodge Ram 2500 4WD Heavy Duty Regular Cab. Dodge Ram 2500 2WD Club Cab Short bed. Dodge Ram 2500 2WD Club Cab Long bed. Dodge Ram 2500 4WD Club Cab Shortbed. Dodge Ram 2500 4WD Club Cab Longbed.
V8/V10. (5.9L/8.0L) Dodge Ram 2500 2WD Club Cab Shortbed. Dodge Ram 2500 4WD Club Cab Shortbed. V8/V10/Cummins Diesel. (5.9L/8.0L/5.9L) Dodge Ram 2500 2WD Heavy Duty Regular Cab. Dodge Ram 2500 4WD Heavy Duty Regular Cab. Dodge Ram 2500 2WD Club Cab Longbed. Dodge Ram 2500 4WD Club Cab Longbed.
For an up to date list of dimensions/performance data for stock 2500 please check http://www.edmunds.com/edweb/trucks/Dodge.Trucks.html The list is so long, it would take up way to much space.!
This section describes the various 3500 models available. These are based on the 1997 model year. This is pretty much the biggest one you can get, dual wheels in the back, and really designed for heavy duty towing.
Dodge Ram 3500 2WD Regular Cab Duallie. Dodge Ram 3500 4WD Regular Cab Duallie. Dodge Ram 3500 2WD Club Cab Duallie. Dodge Ram 3500 4WD Club Cab Duallie.
Dodge Ram 3500 2WD Regular Cab Duallie. Dodge Ram 3500 4WD Regular Cab Duallie. Dodge Ram 3500 2WD Club Cab Duallie. Dodge Ram 3500 4WD Club Cab Duallie.
For an up to date list of dimensions/performance data for stock 3500 please check http://www.edmunds.com/edweb/trucks/Dodge.Trucks.html The list is so long, it would take up way to much space.!
What mileage people have been getting with their RAM's is of course very subjective due to setup and driving conditions. But here are some mileage numbers. Hank Janson: 2500 4x4 97 Cummins Diesel. about 21 miles to the gallon, 35% city 65% highway at speeds of 75 miles. Only have a K&N drop in air filter. Chris firstname.lastname@example.org 2500 V10. 10.5 city 12 Highway. CC 4X4, Auto, stock tires. I have a K&N element. Franco C. Saiano 97 2500HD SLT 4X4 V-10/5 speed, I'm getting about 9-10 MPG in 2WD with no payload. HRVeit@aol.com I get about 11.5 average with 65% city driving and 35% highway. I have a '96 v10 CC 4x4 with a K&N drop in filter, dynomax dual exhaust cat back and a FloThru tailgate. I believe that my setup gives me about 1.5 to 2.0 MPG more than if I left the truck entirely stock. I use 87 octane, after much trial and error. I found the 87 gives me the best performance and mileage. Michael P. Lebow email@example.com I don't get it, I am a big lead foot, and I get 11.5 city min and 15 highway. This is corrected speed, and on a 4x4 2500 extended cab. Its white, maybe that helps. Oh, 5sp, cruise at max (87MPH) and BFG 245/75r16. Inflation pressure makes a difference. 80 is best but doesn't wear well. So 50-60psi is what i run. only change was new tranny fluid and synthetic gear oil for diffs. Oh and a K&N.
firstname.lastname@example.org wrote on this;
I use Mobil 1 10w-30. I may try the 0w-30 at my next oil chang
email@example.com wrote on this; I use the designated Fram Filter for the 360. I know some others are using the Fleetguard Microglass but you must buy those by the case. J. Lacey <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote on this; Called around today, 3 different states, 7 different Cummins dealers - no LF3604 oil filters. They never heard of it! Or the 3313 or the 3487; all fit the V10 & 318 & 360. Whoever was told by Fleetguard that Cummins would have them available 'everywhere' has their head up their butt. Every single dealer said they would not even stock them, period. Simply no call. Some History: Fleetguard company makes oil filters, both the usual paper AND a newer type, that soon everyone will be providing, and they call it a Microglass filter. This is probably the best money can buy. Fleetguard's part #'s for their filters for CC V8s: LF3604, 3/4" opening, 16 thread, paper, 3.7" length LF3313, 3/4" opening, 16 thread; paper, 5.4" length * LF3487, 3/4" opening, 16 thread; Microglass, length? (one of above)* (the one you want; cost
4 Performance upgrades and guidelinesThis section provides you with some insight as to what some people on the ramtruck mailing list have done to their truck to improve the performance and guidelines to keep in mind when you want to improve the performance.
4.1 What can I do to make my truck go faster.Can you ever go to fast.?? Here are some things people on the list have done to get that extra mile.
4.1.1 Biggest performance bang for the $$Here is a list that went around on the list some time ago, it shows what people suggest to do to increase the performance of their (gas) engines. Mike (email@example.com) suggests; Optimal order for purchase: 1: Cat-back 2: Headers 3: mopar chip 4: Throttle body from magnum performance Christopher Siano (Chris_Siano@AutoSite.com) Suggests; The performance computer is the biggest bang for buck improvement you can make. Just remember the minuses. 93 Octane fuel, hates to tow, and don't carry too much of a load. Keep the old computer for those times you need to use cheap fuel, tow something, or haul a major load. Steve Belt (Stephen_D_Belt@ccm.ch.intel.com) Suggests; 1st: Borla Cat-back 2nd: TBI Pro-Street w/ Mystery Shaft 3rd: Borla Headers I haven't considered the SBEC, because I'm not too comfortable with the down sides. Maybe after all of the other things are done, I'll look into it. With the gear change done, it is now a possibility. What I will do, however, is give you feedback after each item is put on the truck, as this may help you decide. And then previous to the above I did: 1st: K&N 2nd: New plugs 3rd: Magnecor plug wires 4th: TransGo Shift Kit BTW, the TransGo is my favorite "bang-for-the-buck" item so far....
4.2 What are kind of tires will/are the best for my truck.This (as most things in this FAQ) is a tricky question to answer. Many people reported bad experiences with the stock Goodyear tires. Keep in mind also, the bigger/smaller the tire than a stock tire will throw your speedometer off, sometimes enough that you need a speedo gear adjustment to make your speedo sane again. :) Here are a few people and the tires they recommend/have on their own truck(s); Steve Belt (Stephen_D_Belt@ccm.ch.intel.com) (About the stock tires.) To me, these tires seem ill-suited for application on a 3/4 ton truck. By the way, they were 245/75R16s. I have since switched to BFG Mud/AT tires. As far as I know, these tires have extremely strong side wall strength. I have accidentally nailed many a curb or hard rock. There is no sidewall bruising evident after 9k miles. The tread, while showing a bit of wear, also looks great. The tires perform well on and off road. They are a bit noisy, due to the tread pattern, and I probably wouldn't want them on a 4x2 truck. BFG makes an All-Terrain tire that I recommend to every Ram Truck owner that wants to "upgrade" from the stock Goodyear rubber. Dennis A. Grindrod Sr (firstname.lastname@example.org) Well thanks to all your input I went out and bought 4 new Dunlop 265x15 radial rover tires and I must say they rode like a dream on a 500 mile trip to Pa. The difference between the stock Goodyear 245x16 and the Dunlop 265x16 is night & day. I put these on my RAM 2500 360ci. 5 speed 2WD.
4.2.1 Tire Pressures.Several people seem to have changed their tire pressure on their trucks to counter for heavy loads and or tire wear. Here are some of the pressures people seem to be using (Please note that tire pressure is also directly related to the type(s)/truck of tire you have on your truck!!); Tim Edwards (T_Edwards@eagle2.stark.k12.oh.us) Writes; I have a 2500 HD Cummins with the factory 245 70R16's on it. They are of course Good Year tires. I run 55 to 60 pounds in the front and 45 in the rear when lite. Just add air to give a full foot print on the road when you load the rear of the truck. One note, at 9000 miles one of the tires grew a flat spot and caused all kinds of problems until it was diagnosed. When on the front end it made the truck drive like it needed a front end alignment. Good Year is replacing the tire for $60 based on tread wear..... Joe (Drdonnelly@aol.com) Writes; I have an 2500. With the diesel, I usually run about 54 front, 46 rear. My D rated 255-85-16s can go up to 60 lb for 3000 lb load. Bob Ballard (email@example.com) Writes; (96 1500, 4x4) I have 25,000 on my wranglers RTS and they still look like new. No feathering, cupping. I do not like the tires at all because of their behavior in the mud, snow and so forth. I usually ran with 38psi up front and 35psi rear and rotated every 6,000 miles.
4.2.2 What are the biggest tires that fit on a 1500.Several people on the list indicated that the biggest tires that fit a _stock_ 1500 2WD (probably same for 4WD) are 265/75R16. Bryan Wilemski firstname.lastname@example.org> send me email with the following; In your FAQ about tires you have a statement about the biggest tire to fit a RAM. I put 285 70R 16 on my 1997 RAM 1500 4x4. It did rub sometimes on MAX wheel turns but I adjusted the MAX turn in a little and it does not rub anymore. I can't fit it in my garage but it stands tall on the trails.
4.2.3 What are the biggest tires that fit on a 2500.rolando Gonzalez (Lando-G@msn.com) wrote on this; I have 33/12.5/16.5 BF Goodrich Radial TA's on my '97 2500HD 4x4. They have rubbed only once on the front. Must of been when I hit that one bump. You won't be able to turn the front tires if you put 35's.
4.2.4 What are the biggest tires that fit on a 3500.TBD
4.3 What is an Borla Exhaust. (+ Installation)A Borla Exhaust is a Dual Exhaust. Used to provide a more "powerful" sound and increase performance. Darin L Brummett (email@example.com) Writes; I have a Borla Cat-back exhaust and the K&N FIPK installed on my 1500 4x4 5.9L. The Borla Cat-back system mates to the output of the stock cat (single pipe 2.75 inch, I think) and runs thru a muffler where it is split in to two pipes (2.25 inch, again I think) and exits behind the right rear tire. They also make a version that exits out the rear. The Borla has Cat-back system adds a wonderful V8 rumble compared to the stock exhaust but isn't too loud IMHO. My experience has been added horsepower, increased MPG and increased drivability (especially on mountain roads and highways). It has also lessened the auto transmission downshifting problem going up hills. J Lacey <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote on this; Borla Stainless-Steel Cat-Back, part# 14591, for 1996 V8 Ordered from Summit Racing but they could only back-order, so system was drop-shipped from Borla in Calif. Their Cat-back exhaust is interesting, rather straight-forward to install, can be done by single person 1/2 day, comes with zero instructions. Mine is 2-pipes exit behind the R R tire and the hanger there is welded & pointed 90* off so you got to go to local installer with torch for fix when finished. 30 days after installation I crawled under and where it clamps before the muffler found 2 leaks; could feel them with fingers when truck running. Their clamps ain't going get it! And for no explainable reason the pipes they include are notched (3/4 in.). Back to local exhaust installer with Ming welder who immediately burns hole in THEIR pipe right where that useless 3/4 in. notch is (cause it is SUPER DAMN THIN! ). Can't be fixed - gotta cut it out & replace - no one in this town has stainless pipe we could purchase. So had to use the old tried & true usual exhaust pipe, fitting in a piece about 20" long, BUT I'm sure there goes the *Life-Time Warranty*. No more leaks! I believe Borla actually intends us to clamp these systems together but they are going to leak, don't think we can get around that. Borla Stainless-Steel Header, part# 17077 Ordered from Summit Racing mid-August but they could only back-order, so system was drop-shipped from Borla in Calif. First, in September, they sent the old style, fits only the '94-'95, and acted so surprised when I called to say I did not have the emissions connection on the header they thought. It was then I alerted this list by posting the part# of 17077 for the 1996 V8 and caught lots of flak from others on same list using the same catalog #'s as all other agents selling Borla. Send them back; they said they would have to make special for me, 2 weeks. Sure enough, then came another large box - in October - contained 1995 Jeep header. Sent them back; they said they would have to make special for me, another 2 weeks. Finally arrived in November with zero instructions, which the company contends is not uncommon, and they faxed me a drawing, saying these were for export and off-the-road use only. You need to know this is not bolt-on system - it requires welding, is designed that way from Borla, yet they did not tell us that when the purchase order was phoned in back in August. Passenger side installs easy. Driver side MUST go on from beneath after removing the starter and forcing tranny return lines to the side. Not a tough job. Small connection pipes they provide are pretty much right on but they ask you to have your local installer weld an end on your cat-converter so there is going to be an added cost. Actually what we did, BECAUSE of experiencing leaks with clamping on the cat-back exhaust system was weld the whole damn system. Cures all leaks and I can foresee no reason I would be pulling the system apart as long as I own RAM. Just tough heading out thru local traffic on a Saturday for the shop sounding like Richard Petty! Noticeable performance change? Cat-back: can not say 'yes, felt performance enhanced' but sounded nice & did improve mpg slightly. Headers: (remember also have cat-back) Can installing these 2 items make one feel a 5000 lb vehicle move quicker; would I not simply be kidding myself, wanting to believe the $$ spend improve everything? Could be. But I could pass a lie detector test if asked, cause I believe I can actually tell, can feel, this RAM has gained in performance. It feels, sounds, MARVELOUS!!! Would I do either OR both systems again? I think so. But after some months of having both I am having MUCH trouble keeping the header bolts tight. Have had to drill the bolts & safety wire them. ALSO, the exhaust header gaskets that come with the Borla system are crap - I have blown out 3; that means have had to change THREE of them - and Borla will tell you so! Get the FelPro #1413 as they are MUCH better and are holding so far.
4.4 Shocks.The general perception of those driving a RAM seems to be that the shocks that come from the factory are not the best ones by any stretch of the imagination. Here are a few peoples suggestions on changing them with something that provides a better ride. Many people seem to lean towards the Rancho 9000 ajustable shocks. But Edelbrock has been come out with a promising new concept in shocks. Here are some comments from a user on the list. Scott Bessel (email@example.com), wrote on this; Since Friday I have been running a new set of Edelbrock IOS shocks, one word WOW! I have owned and used many different shocks including Koni, KYB, Bilstein, Rancho 5000, Rancho 9000, Monroe and stock gas shocks. NONE of these can touch what the IOS shocks can do. These shocks live up to their claims, they give the best of both worlds, they absorb the rough bumps, potholes and speed bumps without a whimper or jarring your teeth out. You can then lay into a turn and they are rock solid without ANY body roll. They shocks are far and away better that ANY shock I have EVER used. I am sure they would even perform better off road. My "new" Indy can now take those 360 on-ramps at 70+ MPH without hesitation and without scaring the life out of you, and if you hit a rut or bump the shocks absorb it without launching the tire and loosing traction.
4.5 Gear Ratios.What are the gear ratios available on the Ram.? See, also 4.6 Axle Info.
4.6 Axle Info.Chris (Chris_Siano@AutoSite.com) Provided the following info on axles; Dana 44-F ========= Application: 1500 and 2500 4x4 Regular Cab, 1500 4x4 Club Cab (with NV231HD an NV241 transfer case) Capacity: 3,850 lbs Type: Hypoid Ratios avail 3.54,3.92,4.09 Ring gear Diameter 8.50 Pinion mount Overhung Pinion shaft diameter 1.376" inner bearing 1.35" outer bearing Differential Pinions Two Axle Shaft material Low carbon Alloy Axle shaft diameter 1.31" inner 1.34" outer axle spline pitch 1.25" Spring Centers 42.15" Universal Single Cardian Turning Angle 36 Degrees Fluid capacity 4.8 pints wheel bearing Tapered Roller Tie Rod type Ball and socket Tie rod diameter 1.25" Tie rod thickness 0.156" Ball centers 61.16" housing pressed tubes wall thickness .39" Dana 60-F ========= Application: 2500 and 3500 4x4 regular cab, 2500HD and 3500 4x4 Club Cab (with NV241 and NV241HD transfer case) Capacity: 4,850 lbs Type: Hypoid Ratios avail 3.54,4.10 Ring gear Diameter 9.75" Pinion mount Overhung Pinion shaft diameter 1.63" inner bearing 1.25" outer bearing Differential Pinions Two Axle Shaft material Low carbon Alloy Axle shaft diameter 1.31" inner 1.34" outer axle spline pitch 1.5" Spring Centers 42.15" Universal Single Cardian Turning Angle 36 Degrees Fluid capacity 7.6 pints wheel bearing Tapered Roller Tie Rod type Ball and socket Tie rod diameter 1.25" Tie rod thickness 0.22" Ball centers 60.15" housing pressed tubes wall thickness .50" Chrysler 9.25 ============= Application: 1500, 1500 4x4 All Engines Capacity: 3,900 lbs type semi-floating Ratios 3.21, 3.55, 3.92 Ring gear diameter 9.25" Ring gear face width 1.375" pinion mounting overhung pinion shaft diameter 1.88" inner 1.31" outer Differential pinions two axle shaft material Induction Hardened diameter at bearing 1.62" axle spline pitch 1.29" Spring Centers 44.50" Fluid capacity (2/4WD) 4.75/4.75 pints wheel bearings Cylindrical Roller Chrysler 9.25 ============= Application: 2500HD, 2500HD 4x4, 2500, 2500 4x4 w/V8 Engines and auto transmission (if Sure-Grip is ordered, Dana 60 is used, except for Ram 2500 4x4 models with 3.55 gear ratio.) Capacity: 5,500 lbs type semi-floating Ratios 3.55, 3.92 Ring gear diameter 9.25" Ring gear face width 1.375" pinion mounting overhung pinion shaft diameter 1.88" inner 1.31" outer Differential pinions two axle shaft material Induction Hardened diameter at bearing 1.70" axle spline pitch 1.29" Spring Centers 44.50" Fluid capacity (2/4WD) 4.75/4.75 pints wheel bearings Cylindrical Roller Dana 60 ======= Application: 2500 HD, 2500 HD 4x4, 2500, 2500 4x4 Manual Transmission w/V8 engines. Capacity: 6,200 lbs type Full-floating Ratios 3.54, 4.09 Ring gear diameter 9.75" Ring gear face width N/A pinion mounting overhung pinion shaft diameter 1.63" inner 1.25" outer Differential pinions two axle shaft material Induction Hardened diameter at bearing none axle spline pitch 1.31" Spring Centers 44.50" Fluid capacity (2/4WD) 6.3/7.3 pints wheel bearings Tapered Roller Dana 70 ======= Application: 2500 HD, 2500 HD 4x4, 8.0L V10 and Diesel w/Auto Transmission. Capacity: 6,500 lbs type Full-floating Ratios 3.54, 4.10 Ring gear diameter 10.5" Ring gear face width N/A pinion mounting overhung pinion shaft diameter 1.75" inner 1.25" outer Differential pinions two axle shaft material Induction Hardened diameter at bearing none axle spline pitch 1.375" Spring Centers 43.26" Fluid capacity (2/4WD) 7.0/7.8 pints wheel bearings Tapered Roller Dana 80 ======= Application: 2500 HD, 2500 HD 4x4, 8.0L V10 and diesel w/Manual Transmission. Capacity: 7,500 lbs type Full-floating Ratios 3.54, 4.10 Ring gear diameter 11.0" Ring gear face width N/A pinion mounting overhung pinion shaft diameter 1.75" inner 1.25" outer Differential pinions two axle shaft material Induction Hardened diameter at bearing none axle spline pitch 1.375" Spring Centers 43.26" Fluid capacity (2/4WD) 6.8/10.1 pints wheel bearings Tapered Roller Dana 80 Dual Rear Wheel ======================= Application: 3500, 3500 4x4 All Engines. Capacity: 7,500 lbs type Full-floating Ratios 3.54, 4.10 Ring gear diameter 11.0" Ring gear face width N/A pinion mounting overhung pinion shaft diameter 1.75" inner 1.25" outer Differential pinions two axle shaft material Induction Hardened diameter at bearing none axle spline pitch 1.375" Spring Centers 43.26" Fluid capacity (2/4WD) 6.8/10.1 pints wheel bearings Tapered Roller
4.7 US Gear Overdrive/Underdrive.There seems to be a product out that can improve the mileage by providing you with an extra 'gear'. Stan Steele (PowerMaster@dodgeram.com), wrote on this; This is a transmission. that bolts to your transmission. to give you more Overdrive or a extra gear. It works on all trucks great with V10s or diesels. if you have a 4.10 it would change to 3.28 in Overdrive and a 3.55 would go to 2.84, you reduce your RPM by 500 or 20%. you gain 10-15MPH at the same RPM. You up shift at any speed or down shift at any speed. You shift it with a switch on the shifter or a floor mounted dimmer switch. You can start in HI or direct drive it does not matter. You have to shorten the rear drive shaft and lengthen the front drive shaft. It does move the transfer case back but all the hardware comes in the kit. Very well done and very easy for anyone to install. P.S. you can split shift it also like a 10speed 1&1H 2&2H and so on. The Overdrive is less than 100lbs on the truck. You will need to have the drive shafts made at a shop.
4.8 K&N Airfilters and FIPK.An easy and pretty cheap way to increase a little performance is to replace your stock air filter with an higher air flow filter. Many on the list (myself included) have either a drop in replacement filter or what is called an FIPK (both made by K&N) These filters work on the principle of providing the engine with more air and thus increasing it's mileage and horsepower. Although these improvements have not been seen by all (I noticed maybe a mile to the gallon more, and a slightly faster throttle response) They do offer one additional benefit, they are guaranteed for the life of your vehicle (or 1 million miles). So once you buy one, you never have to by another. You have to clean them every so many miles, (mine stated every 40.000 or so miles) and they are again as good as new. Several people on the list noted though that this filter might not be helpful in very dusty environments. The thought was that due to the higher airflow rates more dust might get by and foul the air intake. Some people noticed a slight increase in sound with this filter installed. (A very faint high pitch whine from the air filter intake) I have not heard this myself, but my ram is a turbo diesel that whines by itself. :) An K&N Airfilter is just that, a drop in replacement filter for your stock airbox. (From the http://www.performanceintl.com home page) Each FIPK has a specially designed filter with special woven cotton fabric sandwiched between 2 layers of wire mesh screen. The screen and fabric combination creates a grid-like effect which actually straightens out the incoming air as it passes through the filter. In addition to the filter, this kit has a uniquely designed adapter with a built-in velocity stack. This velocity stack is beneficial in further smoothing out the incoming air flow and allowing for a less restrictive entry into the engine. Air moving in a straight direction moves faster than tumbling air thus creating an increase in air flow much like a ram air effect I paid about 49,50 for my drop in replacement. And you can expect to pay around 100,- for the FIPK.
5 Customizations.Stock the RAM line looks impressive, with some help and care they can look spectacular. Here are some helpful hints on how to add modify or maybe even remove from your ram.
5.1 Bedliners.Joe (firstname.lastname@example.org), has the following to say about rhino liners and drop-in liners; RHINO PROS: RHINO CONS: - non-skid - not removable - last forever - More expensive than drop ins. - Any color - Can create extra hassle if truck in accident. (list members have said that some body shops will not take a vehicle with spray-on) - quiet - If dents occur, you see them. - no unusable bed space - Need to be concerned about the installer. - over or under rail (actually whatever you want) - protects bed from minor dents - can be sprayed around bed accessories (5th wheel hitch) DROP-IN PROS: DROP-IN CONS: - Removable - rubs paint off bed from shifting motion - protects bed from minor dents - minimal amount of unused bed space - over and under rail - can get hacked - Removable, you have the option - can rattle to return your truck to "stock". - - Easily replaced if truck in accident. - Less expensive than spray-on. - Hides dents that do occur. - Non-skid surface available. - Lasts forever (life-time warranty on Duraliner). - Installs easily. J Lacey <email@example.com> wrote on this; RHINO LINING From my place in the Pan handle of FL, Montgomery, AL is the closest Rhino dealer. Drive up for my 9am appointment. These guys clean & wash the bed, rough it up with grinder/sander, clean again with acetone, then apply the goo (after the sanding I sort of liked the white swirl-look in the bed; too bad we couldn't have left it at that!) 3 coats bed & sides, come back and add 2 more to bed (5 ttl). Dries within minutes of spraying and I was headed home by 2:30PM. TIP: Watch the guys with the knife - they cut the excess off. Be sure they do not get into your truck itself with knife.
5.2 Running Boards.Jay Eberhard (firstname.lastname@example.org) wrote on this; I have the Mopar running boards. They are covered with black plastic and come are available for the cab and the bed. I only have the cab portions on my truck (previous owner did this). I have thought about switching to the Mopar Nerf Bars to match my grill guard but thats sometime in the future if at all.
5.3 Brush Guards.There are many flavors of brush guard available after market, here are some that list members have installed/like; Mark Brown (email@example.com), wrote on this; TJM Bull Bars, imported from Australia by Hella Inc. 800-247-5924 they offer two applications(T1,T17) for late model Dodge Rams. Reunel Mfg. 800-338-2077 offers extreme duty bumpers for Rams. (Editors note; expensive, but the most heavy duty bumper on the market for a RAM today.) Jay Eberhard (firstname.lastname@example.org) wrote on this; I have the Mopar Grill/Brush guard. They come Chrome, anodized or black aluminum or black steel. I have the anodized aluminum Andi Vogt (email@example.com) wrote on this; I went with Warn's full brush guard and winch mount. It looks great and supports the winch very nicely. The only draw back is it's low clearance while 4x4ing. I had to remove mine on the trail as my longer wheelbase added with the overhang (AKA rock magnets) caused me to need to take too many angular approaches. I found the uninstall as easy as the install. (Unlike my tow hook install.) I had to make two vertical cuts in my air dam to install the brush guard. You can see my guard and one tow hook on my web page http://www.aros.net/~azure/
5.4 Side bars.Andi Vogt (firstname.lastname@example.org) wrote on this; I use Grizzlies on my 1500 Short box. I selected Grizzlies because they are a touch shorter than Smittybuilt and mount to the frame leaving only a 2" gap between them and the lower side panel of my Ram. They don't cause any rubbing either with my slightly over sized 32x11.5 Sport Kings. They are not as good a quality as Smittybuilt, ie. chipping black paint and rust, but they are made of the same tough high grade steel that Smitty is. I beat the heck out of them in Moab, and they protected my truck stupendously. A little sanding and touch up paint and they are as good as new. They also come with a no-skid strip which I have been thankful for more than once.
5.5 Aero Tanks.J Lacey <email@example.com> wrote on this; AERO EXTRA FUEL TANK On the RAM list, April of last year, was posted 2 companies that offer replacement/auxiliary fuel tanks for RAM. I called both; only Aero actually did. After I received their brochure I spoke with Jim (engineer, owner?) who said they had a 40 gal replacement for 1996 ext cab swb 2x4. A second call with further questions & I spoke with Jacob (installer tech?) who stated no, wasn't suitable, was for only 4x4, and in a 3rd call Jim this time confirmed wouldn't fit. Said every time they looked under CC trucks, they'd changed something and he couldn't keep up. Same yr, 8 mos later, another call. This time Jim says they NOW make one to fit my 2x4. Ordered 12/2; cost $389 + $49 for sending unit + shipping to east coast; arrived 2 days before Christmas. Attempted to fit up & install during Holidays and found it would fit close EXCEPT the 2x4 has a cross-over member/carrier for the extended cab drive shaft and this tank did not take that into account (I got under a '96 4x4 & checked). A call to Aero and was told they were shut down for the Holidays; could do zero for 11 days! Twelve days later & Jim did not act surprised when all was disclosed. I suggested taking tank to a fabrication shop, the offending section cut and added lower, tank would then fit and Jim said they would pick up the shop charges. It was done. One half day of installation and it's aboard! But even if tank needed no alteration, it would not have fit as they say. We needed 1"+ to 2" spacers on all corners AND sending unit they provided could not be used nor was needed. When we called to be sure, they said it wouldn't work without it but we found the original Dodge unit WOULD fit and work PERFECT and the gauge shows accurate gallons. On an incognito call to them this date, 3/12/97, I found they do not yet differentiate between the 2x4 and 4x4 - one tank fits ALL. They have yet to admit there is a problem so they're gonna sell you tank for your RAM and fit be damn. I personally think the tank in question would have fit a 4x4 pretty good (maybe have to use some spacers) but at least would go on without adjustments. But I have yet to see evidence or testimony from Aero that they make a tank, to replace your OEM one, for the RAM 2x4. And IF they are going to owe you $$, thats another complete story! There it is - hauls 40+ gals and when yanking that gas guzzling 5th-wheel, I go a hell of a lot further.
5.6 Lights.Quite frequently the question comes up about increasing the brightness/color of the ram headlights. Several people have made suggestions. As with everything, check with your local authorities for the legalities of the headlight modifications. http://www.accessconnect.com/ Seems to carry the bluish tinted headlights some people have seen. They seem to come in several different wattages. Also http://member.aol.com/eurolights/home.html Seems to be a source for them.
5.7 Better brake pads.The Rams are heavey trucks, and sometimes take some effort to stop. Several people have been advocating better brake pads, they are made by Performance Friction and are called Carbon Metallic. Any self respecting car parts dealer should be able to get them without much problems. Check when buying, but the part number for for the 2500 4x4 and diesel& V10 is #04594.
6 The Cummins diesel engineThe 2500 and 3500 series are available with an optional 5.9 L inline 6 cylinder Cummins diesel engine. This is a completely different beast than any of the gas engines, and as such has an chapter devoted to it.
6.1 Oil pressure delay.Various owners have reported seeing the following; When starting the engine it seems to take the oil light a few seconds to go off, and the oil pressure a few seconds to start registering the operating pressure. Keith Gardner (firstname.lastname@example.org), wrote on this; Mine has done that since new. It happens because all of the oil finds its way to the pan (a thin coating remains, but not much). The oil pump just needs a little time to pump oil out of the pan and into the motor. I think the owner's manual states that you should have pressure within 10 seconds of startup (it may be 5, I'm not real sure).
6.2 What kinds of oil are people using for the Cummins Diesel.The Cummins diesel engines takes special "heavy duty" oil, not the regular motor oil usually used in gasoline engines. The engine oil must be rated "API CG-4/SH" email@example.com wrote; Try Chevron Delo 400 SAE14W-40 or Castrol RX Super SAE 15w-40. Both of these have labels stating that the product meets or exceeds Cummins performance specifications. Joe (Drdonnelly@aol.com), wrote about this; I use Castrol 15-40RX Super. Both I and my engine machinist like the stable base stock (compared to Pennzoil, etc). I get about 5 or so more pounds of oil pressure with this oil than with the stuff the truck came with (Cummins or Dodge oil). Other guys swear by Shell Rotella T, Chevron Delo 400, etc. I see Texaco and Pennzoil have oil meeting the specs of 15-40, CG-4, and SH. S additives are for spark ignition, but some say they are needed with diesels that have roller lifters or have HEUI injectors like the PowerStroke. C additives are for compression ignition--diesels. B engines use solid lifters and conventional injectors (Bosch). Caterpillar developed HEUI jointly with Navistar. Dodge recognizes only 4 oil filters for warranty. Any other, and you are taking your $8000 engine in hand, so to speak. These 4 are really the same as far as I can tell, the part numbers being Mopar, Case, Cummins, and Fleetguard. The last is LF3349 and costs me a couple $ less each than the Mopar #. Case and Cummins designed and built the B engine as a joint venture. The Rocky Mount NC plant says something like Consolidated Engines, I am told. Fleetguard is a Cummins subsidiary. They make a "Microglass" filter that is really good according to many, but Cummins says it is not really needed with the duty cycle and change intervals specified by Dodge. I stick with a 2500-3000 mile change interval, and the LF3349 filter for "without question" warranty. Mike Leckey, Jr (firstname.lastname@example.org) wrote on this; I have used Shell Rotella T 15w40 for 7 years. First in my 1990 Cummins, and now in my 1996 CC Cummins. Editor writes; I myself use Chevron Delo 400 15W40.
6.3 Biggest performance bang for the $$ for diesels.The Cummins diesel on the Ram is incredibly powerful. More powerful than even the 2500 or 3500 can handle. Here are some hints to what you can do to get more performance from the Cummins. Lance Kirk (email@example.com) Suggests; Without any thought, the biggest "bang to the buck" (IMHO) is to purchase one of the power increase kits that are advertised in the Register. The one I've dealt with is from TST Products out of Indiana. This is a small "family type" business where the owner use to work for Cummins but now just sells power mods. for the engine. He sells three kits, all of which cost $349 (this includes postage). The kits will take your stock 215 HP / 440 LB Torque engine and allow you to increase to: #1- 230 HP / 605 LB Torque or #2- 260 HP / 685 LB Torque or #3- ??? HP / 770 LB Torque (Sorry don't recall the HP on this one, but it was like around 290) (#3 and possibly #2 were NOT recommended for automatics) Each of these kits comes with a video tape and detailed instructions showing you how to install the kit. Plus you can call him and ask any questions about the product or if you need help doing the install. Sounds great right. So why doesn't everyone do it? Well there are a few problems. The biggest is that you will without any thought kiss your warranty good-bye. The second is that the truck (transmission, driveline) is not designed for this extra increase in torque and if one is not careful you can and will start overloading and busting things. (Although the guy who sales this product said they haven't had many problems with this as long as you don't do stupid things like popping the clutch.) I have purchased the 685 LB Torque kit but have not yet installed it because I'm currently arguing with the dealer over some other warranty work. So I don't want to modify the engine until all of this other work is done under warranty and see that it was done right. So it will be awhile yet. Someone else on the list, Jeff Hammer, if I got his name right, has installed the 605 Torque kit and apparently loves it. (I would ask him for further.) For what it is worth, the guy didn't push or suggest the 770 Torque option unless you are looking at making some other modifications as well because it is so powerful.
6.4 What is this ISB engine I keep hearing about.Starting with the 98 model year Cummins is introducing a new diesel engine that is replacing the one that they have been putting in the Ram. This is the new ISB engine, it's main reason for existing seems to be to meet the new emissions regulations.
7 What about more 4x4 info.This section hopefully provides the reader with some more background on 4x4 operation. A lot of the info provided in this section came from Scott Nixon (firstname.lastname@example.org), Thanks very much for the additions Scott.!
7.1 What's that lever for?Ram trucks equipped with 4WD have a full time chain driven transfer case (NVG231HD in 1500's, NVG241 or NVG241HD in 2500's and 3500's) that should only be engaged on low traction surfaces. Usage on pavement can cause damage due to driveline binding; usage on rain slicked pavement is open to debate. Some insist it is still a bad idea; personally I am willing to trade extra tire and driveline wear for the safety and stability 4WD adds. A good indication is if the rear wheels slip under moderate throttle input (pedal to the metal neutral drops DON'T count :), you're probably safe slipping it into four wheel drive. All available transfer cases are shift on the fly for 4Hi and can be engaged by pulling the shift lever towards you. The drivers manual recommends this only be done below 55MPH. If done while parked, it may take a little movement for the system to engage (see below). Engagement for 4Lo provides an extra 2.72 gear reduction for use in deep snow, loose sand, and whenever high torque/low speed operation is desired. For automatics, come to a near stop (1-3MPG), put the transmission in neutral, slide the transfer case into 4Lo, and then put the transmission back in gear. Shifting back into 4Hi is done by reversing the above procedure. Going all the way to 2Hi may be easier.
7.2 Where are my hubs?All new Rams use a Central Axle Disconnect (CAD) system to disconnect the front driveline when in 2WD, instead of the more traditional hubs. The system consists of a dog clutch that slides over to connect the two halves of the passenger side front axle when engaged. Some wheel movement may be required to get both halves to align. Owners who purchase a 4WD truck for winter use only should keep in mind that the vacuum diaphragm that engages the dog clutch needs to used every month or so to keep it pliable. This also allows the transfer case to be lubricated. In other words, if you have 4WD, find a nice dirt road and use it!!
7.3 Stock, shmock, I want to lift it!
7.3.1 Available lift kitsHere is a list of some of the Lift kits that people on the list seem to use when they want to rise above the crowds. TBD
7.4 If its four wheel drive, why am I stuck?Andi Vogt (email@example.com) wrote on this; IMHO, engaging four wheel drive is like driving a different vehicle. There are new rules and governing factors that need to be heeded. In snow and ice, A 4x4 can help you to maintain traction, but as with any vehicle, excessive speed, inattention, and bad luck can send you careening out of control. After all, ice is ice and no vehicle is ever fully control-able, whether front wheel drive, rear wheel drive or 4 wheel drive. People get stuck using 4 lo all the time. Factors such as tire tread, gearing, soil type, and overzealousness influence your Ram's ability to successfully maneuver many road conditions. If you are in a mud bog you need to handle your Ram differently than on slick rock. Even 4 wheelers with decades of experience get in over their heads. Four wheel drive is a very useful tool, but a tool none-the-less. It takes training and experience to learn it's quirks. John Donovan (firstname.lastname@example.org) wrote on this; The stock differential on the Rams is referred to as an "open" differential. The diff.. splits the torque equally between the wheels. So if you imagine a worst-case stuck with one rear wheel on the ground, and one in the air. The one in the air take very little torque to spin, and therefore the one on the ground also gets very little torque and you won't move. Engaging 4 wheel drive turns the front wheels in the same manner as the rear, if you get one front and one rear into a situation where they can spin easily, even if the other 2 wheels can get a grip you will still be stuck. See the section on "traction aiding devices" for more info on what you can do to help get more traction
7.4.1 Brief description of traction aiding devicesFor people who spend a lot of time off road open differentials are unacceptable. However, as with most things in life, gaining more offload traction involves tradeoffs in cost or on-road performance. What all traction adding devices do is limit the split of power between the pair of wheels on an axle. This allows more power to go to the wheel that grips, but can cause increased tire wear and handling problems.
7.4.2 List of factory available LSD'sJohn Donovan (email@example.com) wrote on this; The factory LSD is the Dana trac-loc which uses clutch packs to bias the torque split between the wheels. As factory systems go, this is one of the better ones out there and for people who only occasionally go off highway it really is a good choice. If you are doing a factory order, its only a $250 option, and after the fact it will cost 2-3 times as much.
7.4.3 List of aftermarket LSD's/lockersJohn Donovan (firstname.lastname@example.org) wrote on this; From the after market there are several types of LSD/Lockers. The easiest to install is the lockright, and fairly inexpensive at $350 of lest for most diffs.. The install can be done by the "shade tree" mechanic in a few hours and does not require resetting the ring & pinion gear. The lockright allows a wheel to go faster than the drive shaft is turning it, but not slower, and provides a 50/50 power split. The problem is on street handling is effected. The truck will tend to chirp tires in turns, and will also tend to go straight rather than turn. In low traction rain/snow if you do spin the wheels the truck will tend to fish tail because both rear wheels are spinning. The second option is a gear driven LSD, the most common being an Auburn. Unlike the factory clutch pack system there is nothing to wear out, and it generally gives a better torque split between the slipping and gripping wheel. The cost is similar to the lockrights, but a professional install is STRONGLY recommended because of the need to reset the ring & pinion. Installation will run $100-$300 depending on the installers ability to get the ring & pinion set up correctly without too many retries. The third kind is a hybrid open/locked diff. called an ARB air locker. Under normal operation the diff.. operates as an open, but when air pressure (from a compressor) is applied and the diff. behaves like a fully locked differential, like the Detroit locker (see below). They are expensive at $500, plus $200 for a compressor, plus $100-$300 to install... the general rule of thumb is a complete ARB system is $1000ish The fourth kind of locker is the "true" locker, and is also sometimes referred to as a Detroit or Posi, after Detroit's posi-traction rear that first showed up in some of the muscle cars of the 60's. When torque is put on the drive shaft, the diff. locks the right and left wheels together so they MUST turn at the same speed. This is very problematic in turns when the wheels are driveling different diameter circles to go around the curve. Also as you change throttle position you can cause the diff. to lock and unlock which results in under/over steer conditions. Also because of the locking nature of the diff. tire wear is greatly accelerated. The cost is in the $400 range, plus install. I've driven trucks with lockrights, track-locs, and Detroit's and there is a big difference between them. The Detroit is hard to beat off road, but is hard to live with on road. The lockright is nearly as good offroad and is more live able on road, but is not as strong... something to consider if you have a V10 or Cummins up front. The LSD is almost unnoticeable on road, and does help with traction. Sure its not as good as the other kinds of lockers, but its MUCH nicer on highway.
7.4.4 Why you can't use an LSD in a front CAD systemTBD
7.5 Help, I'm stuck!And there you are with your big 4x4, stuck! So what can you do to get out equipment wise.?
7.5.1 Description of factory tow hooks, installationAndi Vogt (email@example.com) wrote on this; Oh boy!!! I installed my Mopar tow hooks a few months ago and what a devil it was! My brush guard was already installed and used the same frame mounts that the hooks needed to use. If I were to do it again, I would remove my airdam, remove my brush guard, mount the hooks to the lower holes in the brush guard, hacksaw off the bolts extra length, and reinstall the brush guard. Then I would cut out the slots on the airdam for the hooks and reinstall. Had I done this originally, I would have had less stress. I didn't do this however, because my brush guard and winch are just a bit to heavy for me to remove by myself. Next time I would hire a few muscles to help me.
7.5.2 Aftermarket winch bumpersBill A (firstname.lastname@example.org) wrote on this; AWDirect (800-243-3194 for catalog) has a winch kit designed especially for the Dodge Ram using the stock bumper. Includes Ramsey Pro 9000 winch, cable and a roller fairhead, all mounting hardware. $1169.00 They also have a wrap-around push bumper (the type used on wreckers) specifically designed for the Ram. $529.00, $629.00 for turbo applications.
7.6 How to tow a 4x4Towing a 4x4 is somewhat differently than towing a 4x2. Here are some guidelines and instructions on how to tow a 4x4. TBD
8 Various helpful sites.Here is a list of various http/ftp sites that might be helpful in finding out more information about all aspects of the Dodge truck line. http://www.rwilson.com Dodge Ram HQ!! Maintained by Ron Wilson. Home of the ramtruck mailing list.!!! http://www.edmunds.com General car information, good ram info here to. http://www.autosite.com Helpful auto/truck related site Ramtrucks Who is who web page: http://www.infopage.com/rtml. This web page is maintained by a member ((email@example.com)) of the ramtruck mail list. Send adds/changes/deletes to (firstname.lastname@example.org) FAQ for Chrysler: http://z.simplenet.com/cc/wholefaq.txt
9 Credits.This FAQ would not be possible without the help of many people, here is a list of those people who have provided great input to this FAQ one way or another. (HRVeit@aol.com) Andi Vogt (email@example.com) Bill A (firstname.lastname@example.org) Chris (email@example.com) Chris Siano (Chris_Siano@AutoSite.com) Darin L Brummett (firstname.lastname@example.org) Dennis A. Grindrod Sr (email@example.com) J Lacey (firstname.lastname@example.org) Jay Eberhard (email@example.com) Joe Donnelly (Drdonnelly@aol.com) Joe (firstname.lastname@example.org) John Donovan (email@example.com) Keith Gardner (firstname.lastname@example.org) Lance Kirk (email@example.com) Mark Brown (firstname.lastname@example.org) Michael P. Lebow (email@example.com) Mike (firstname.lastname@example.org) Rolando Gonzalez (Lando-G@msn.com) Scott Nixon (email@example.com) Stan Steele (PowerMaster@dodgeram.com) Steve Belt (Stephen_D_Belt@ccm.ch.intel.com) Tim Edwards (T_Edwards@eagle2.stark.k12.oh.us) firstname.lastname@example.org Bryan Wilemski (email@example.com)